Beijing Tourist Attraction – Siheyuan – Beijing Courtyard
Beijing Siheyuan or Called Beijing Quadrangle Courtyard (Chinese 四合院, pinyin: Siheyuan) is a historical type of residence, which is usually found in Beijing China, the most famous in Beijing. The name literally means a quadrangle courtyard surrounded by four buildings. Siheyuan in English, sometimes referred to as Chinese quadrangles. Although the Chinese history, was part of siheyuan basic template used for houses, palaces, temples, monasteries, families, businesses and government agencies. In ancient times, a large siheyuan least one, usually a large population and large families, which means wealth and prosperity. Today, however, most other siheyuan used as mass housing complexes, and suffer from a lack of modern amenities.
Siheyuan in Beijing
Beijing Dongcheng District, with the Bell and Drum Tower viewed from a distance, this area of siheyuan known for its high concentration of historical siheyuan – Beijing courtyard in the fully developed already in the Western Zhou period (1122 BC to 256 BC . er.) represents the most outstanding and fundamental characteristics of Chinese architecture. They are available throughout China and the template for most Chinese styles.
The population boom in modern Beijing shell the town made a big problem. Siheyuan now commonly used as residential complexes, hosting several families, with courtyards developed to provide additional living space. Living conditions in many siheyuan are dirty, with very few with private toilets. In 1990 a systematic destruction of the old city hall in Beijing during the rapid economic development. Siheyuan be demolished to overcrowding and address have been replaced by modern apartment buildings.
After the Beijing Municipal Administration of Cultural Heritage, there are more than 3000 well-preserved “courtyards still in Beijing, and more than 539 cultural and historical reserves. There is also a 7000-9000 yard for sale in Beijing, praised, and they are usually set at 7000-10000 yuan per square meter. Other studies put the estimate at about more than 30.000 siheyuan courtyards in old Beijing. obtained the historical siheyuan includes Lu Xun Memorial Memorial Guo Moruo, Mao Dun, “Memorial”, Mei Lanfang “Memorial”, and Lao She Memorial.
The four buildings located in the siheyuan usually along the north-south and east-west axes. The building is located on the north and south than the main house (正房). A building near the main house and the western and eastern parts of the house (厢房) is called. North, east and west buildings are beautifully decorated tract (廊) related. These transitions serve as shelters from the sun during the day and offer a cool place to learn the opinion of the court to assess the night. Which goes to the north than at home in front of known (倒 座 房). For the northern building, often a separate building, to return (后 罩 房), the only place that allowed two-storey building of traditional siheyuan to be built.
Gates, as a rule, tin and copper hammer out the door is painted, usually in the south-east corner. Usually there is a screen wall (C. 影壁, pinyin: yǐng BI) in goal for privacy, superstition says that it also protects the house from evil spirits. A pair of stone lions are often placed in front of the gate. All the rooms around the courtyard have large windows overlooking the yard and small windows high up on the back wall outside on the street. Some do not have rear windows. Some major compounds of two or more farms in the large family house, which was a sign of prosperity and wealth in ancient times.
The Hutong courtyard dwellings were built according to traditional concepts of the five elements believed to compose the universe, and the eight diagrams of divination. The gates were made in the southeast corner of “wind” corner, and the main house was on the north side, which was probably built belong to the “water” – the element to prevent fire.
Scheme of a simple traditional Chinese Confucian morality and ethics. In Beijing, four buildings in the yard get different amounts of sunlight. North Main building gets the most, and thus serves as a living room and bedroom of the owner or head of household. Eastern and western sides of buildings get smaller, and serve as a place for children or less important members of the family. Southern Building gets the least sunlight, and usually operates as a waiting room and staff flat, or where families gather to relax, eat, or do you want to learn. Back building is not for the unmarried daughters and maids, because unmarried girls were allowed direct contact with the public so that they siheyuan occupied most of the buildings in the remote control.
More accurate and more stratified Confucian order in ancient China followed. The main house (正房), designated in the north to the oldest member of the family, that is, the head of the family, usually grandparents. If the main house (正房) was enough room, will serve as the central room as a temple for the worship of ancestors. If the head of the family had concubines, is a woman in the room to the east end of the main house (正房) reside, while his concubines in the room will remain at the western extremity of the main house (正房). The eldest son of the family and his wife in the west of the house (厢房) are located, while the youngest son and his wife in the eastern house (厢房) will live. When his grandson has grown, he will remain in the house opposite (倒 座 房) in the south. Unmarried daughter will always live in a building (后 罩 房) behind the main house (正房).
conducted at the funeral in siheyuan depends on the location of burial status of the deceased, but all the boxes are positioned so that the head of the deceased points south, while the feet to the north. If the deceased spouse or the head of his wife, the window on the central line in the main building (正房) will be. If the deceased was a concubine of the head of the family, her coffin in the main building (正房) remain, but may not be in the middle. If the deceased young man, his tomb is located on the central line of the court. If the deceased was a young woman, her coffin was found in the yard, but can not be on the center line.
Residence of Siheyuan since ancient times. Siheyuan is sound practical potential. North-west wall, are generally higher than the other walls to protect the inside of buildings from the harsh winds over north China in winter. Trimmed curve down so that rain water flows over the curve and not fall down. Ridged roof to provide shade in summer and warm in the winter at the same time.
Siheyuan offers space, comfort, tranquility and seclusion. Siheyuan wall for security and protection against dust and storms. In plants, stones and flowers in the yard has a garden, and serves as a living room outdoors. Verandah divides the courtyard into several big and small rooms, not very far from each other. Family members spoke to each other here, creating a warm atmosphere.
Siheyuan (Quadrangle) in Beijing Today – Siheyuan History
Beijing (siheyuan) traditional beijinger living place, many Beijing residents of the town houses within the second ring road, the boundaries of old Beijing marks. Siheyuan line of small alleys, or hutongs, that make up most of downtown. But siheyuan many of which consist of four rooms around a central courtyard, now torn down now and quite a large proportion of those who the court of life for generations of high-rise apartment blocks are moved into new housing areas.
Housing is now one of the most difficult problems facing Beijing, the city that is growing both geographically and in population at a rapid pace is. So, a siheyuan now often houses several families and many yards with the additional numbers have been taken. This contributes to “Rabbit Warren” nature of the hutongs. The living conditions in many siheyuan are now considered poor, especially since few private latrines or toilets. To solve the obvious problems of overcrowding, siheyuan are now torn down and modern apartment blocks. However, there are some Grand siheyuan in Beijing, which has safeguarded its former glory. Mainly used for royalty and high officials who have been built at the turn of the century, many of them turned into museums, and others are just living in today’s public servants, or as public institutions.
Beijing Hutong is Beijing unique old city lane. The former Beijing residence in the beijing downtown are all live in the buildings with patios on all four sides in the beijing hutong. The courtyard in the construction of the four sides, a difference of little things and simplicity on the high and low social status of the population. Large Hutong courtyard with buildings on four sides rich architecture. Small courtyard with building on all four sides of the people a simple design and clean appearance and narrow wall of the house has off. Before the end of the Qing dynasty, China was behind the natural economy. Engage in trading activity is lower in the idea of feudalism. Beijing Hutong courtyard on all four sides (siheyuan) is a miniature of the state of social life and culture of that time. At the end of the Qing dynasty hutong has gone from prosperity to decline. This trend is the natural evolution of Beijing Hutong, with the collapse of feudalism.
By the traditional beijing hutong Rickshaw to view the featuring of Beijing local Hutong and siheyuan, and visit the local beijingers family has become a fashion in Beijing.
Today’s Beijing hutong and Beijing Siheyuan have become a tourist attraction in Beijing.
Siheyuan in other areas
In Gansu, Qinghai and other north-western regions, where dust storms are very strong, courtyard walls, tend to be higher. Forms siheyuan also changed: in the north-west China, north-south span of siheyuan usually much longer than the edge of an east-west, while in other provinces such as Sichuan, the opposite is true. In southern China, the houses are built with multiple stories. In the northeast, the land lot and the weather is cold, so the farms are built wide and large increase in sunlight, and there are more open spaces in the walls.